In Sweden, the coverage of collective agreements is very high, although there is no legal mechanism to extend agreements to entire sectors. In 2018, 83% of all private sector employees were covered by collective agreements, 100% of public sector employees and a total of 90% (based on the entire labour market).  This reflects the predominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.  The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights makes it possible to organize trade unions as a fundamental human right.  Point 2(a) of the International Labour Organisation`s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines “freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential right of workers.  The 1948 Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by establishing international labour standards that prevent countries from violating workers` right to organize and bargain collectively.  The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and offered unprecedented bargaining power to a variety of workers.  The Railway Labour Act (1926) required employers to bargain collectively with trade unions. The term “collective bargaining” was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, one of the founders of industrial relations in Britain.  It refers to the type of bargaining and collective agreements that have existed since the rise of unions in the 18th century. The union can negotiate with a single employer (who usually represents the shareholders of a company) or with a group of companies, depending on the country, to reach a sectoral agreement. A collective agreement acts as an employment contract between an employer and one or more unions.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between representatives of a trade union and employers (usually represented by management or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers` association) with regard to workers` conditions of employment, such as wages, working hours, working conditions, complaint procedures and the rights and obligations of trade unions. The parties often refer to the outcome of negotiations as a collective agreement (CLA) or a collective labour agreement (CEA). In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in Texas & N.O.R. Co.c. The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks confirmed the prohibition by law of employer interference in the selection of collective bargaining representatives.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order that gave public sector unions the right to bargain collectively with federal agencies.  In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. The Act prohibits employers from discriminating, spying, harassing, dismissing or taking revenge on workers on the basis of their trade union membership when they participate in campaigns or other “concerted activities”, form company unions or refuse to bargain collectively with the union representing their workers. It is also illegal to require a worker to join a union as a condition of employment.
 Trade unions are also able to ensure safe working conditions and fair remuneration for their work. In 24 U.S. states, workers working in a unionized company may be required to contribute to representation costs (p.B. at disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues have negotiated a union security clause in their contract with management. Contributions are usually 1 to 2% of salary. However, union members and other workers covered by collective agreements receive, on average, a wage premium of 5 to 10% compared to their non-unionized (or unlicensed) colleagues.  Some states, particularly in the south-central and southeastern regions of the United States, have banned union security clauses; This can be controversial because it allows some net beneficiaries of the collective agreement not to pay their share of the costs of contract negotiations. Regardless of the state, the Supreme Court has ruled that the law prevents a person`s union dues from being used without consent to fund political goals that could run counter to the individual`s personal policies. Instead, in states where union security clauses are allowed, these dissidents may choose to pay only the portion of dues that goes directly to employee representation.
 The right to bargain collectively with an employer enhances the human dignity, freedom and autonomy of workers by giving them the opportunity to influence the setting of rules in the workplace and thereby gain control over an important aspect of their lives, namely their work. Collective bargaining is not simply a tool for pursuing external objectives. on the contrary, [it] in itself is valuable as a self-government experience. Collective bargaining enables workers to achieve a form of democracy in the workplace and to ensure the rule of law in the workplace. Workers gain a voice to influence the establishment of rules that control an important aspect of their lives.  Collective bargaining is a bargaining process between employers and a group of workers to reach agreements regulating wages, working conditions, benefits and other aspects of workers` compensation and workers` rights. The interests of workers are usually represented by representatives of a trade union to which the workers belong. Collective agreements entered into as part of these negotiations generally set out salary ranges, hours of work, training, health and safety, overtime, grievance mechanisms and the right to participate in the affairs of the workplace or company.  In June 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada examined in depth the reasons why collective bargaining was classified as a human right […].